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KICJ Research Reports

Korean Crime Victim Survey in 2022 사진
Korean Crime Victim Survey in 2022

Abstract

1. Overview of Korean Crime Victim Survey in 2022


  A. Purpose



• The purpose of the survey is to identify the hidden crime along with the awareness of public safety, and to identify various criminal damage experiences (including unreported damage) in daily life and the public’s awareness and attitudes toward the crime phenomenon for be used as foundational data for establishment of policies to protect and support crime victims.


  B. Scope of Survey


• The content of the ‘Korean Crime Victim Survey in 2022’ has been comprehensively revised with examples to match the survey period. Changes include the distinction between stalking and harassment items in accordance with the enactment of the “Stalking Punishment Act,” as well as the addition of items related to hidden camera incidents. Additionally, as a special topic, survey includes the actual circumstances related to crime victimization in single-person households.


• The questionnaire consists of a basic questionnaire (household representative respondent/household member) and an incident questionnaire. 


  C. Sampling design and Survey methods


• Target Population: General households residing within the territory of the Republic of Korea at the current survey reference point, including household members aged 14 and above. 


• Survey Population: All households and household members aged 14 and above within the general survey areas of the “2021 Population and Housing Census,” specifically within the general survey areas (1) and apartment survey areas (A) (excluding island survey areas, dormitory facility survey areas, special social facility survey areas, and survey areas for tourist hotels and foreign residents).



2. Key Analysis Results of the National Crime Victimization Survey 2022


  A. National Crime Victimization Rate


• In 2022, the crime victimization rate for individuals aged 14 and above is 5.4%, with a violent crime victimization rate of 1.04% and a property crime victimization rate of 6.44%.


• The estimated percentage of crime victimization households among all households in 2022 is 1.93%, with the percentage of households victimized by crime of intrusion upon habitation at 0.59%, and the percentage of households victimized by other crimes at 1.34%.


• In 2022, the estimated proportion of all households experiencing crime victimization is 2.01%, with 0.62% of households experiencing intrusion upon habitation-related crime victimization and 1.38% of households experiencing other crime victimization


  B. Status and Results of Violent Crime Victimization


• In 2022, violent crime victimization occurred primarily in “spring (March to May)” and predominantly during the “evening and night (18:00 to 24:00).” Additionally, unlike the previous survey year (2020, “at home”), in 2022, violent crime victimization occurred most frequently in “densely populated commercial areas.”


• 20.3% of violent crime victims were physically harmed during the incident, with physical harm mainly involved “bruises or scratches on the body or eyes, such as beating or scratching”, and emotional distress consisting of “feelings of depression, such as helplessness or loss of self-esteem,” or “feelings of fear such as panic or shock.” Meanwhile, it was observed that in incidents of violent crime victimization, the most common relationship between the victim and the perpetrator was “not acquainted.”


  C. Status and Results of Property Crime Victimization


• In 2022, property crime victimization occurred primarily in “spring (March-May)”, and predominantly during the “midday and afternoon (12:00-18:00)”, and occurred mostly at home.


• Overall, 22.3% of property crime victims occurred online, with the primary platform being “instant messengers (such as KakaoTalk, etc).”


• The most common type of fraud victimization in 2022 was “someone borrowed money under the guise of repayment when they had no intention or ability to pay it back”; the most common items stolen were “wallets, purses, and bags” and “cash, checks, and gift certificates”; and the most common items damaged were “vehicles (and parts).”


• In 2022, the most common psychological mpacts experienced from property crime victimization were “depression (helplessness, loss of self-esteem)” and “fear (panic, shock).”


  D. Police Reporting and Handling of Crime Victims


• In 2022, 13.2% and 20.7% of victims reported violent and property crimes, respectively


• In terms of the reasons for reporting and not reporting criminal damage, the most common reason for reporting was “to apprehend and punish the perpetrator” for both violent and property crimes. The most common reason for non-reporting was “because the damage was not serious” for both violent and property crimes.


• In 2022, the percentage of respondents who reported that the police took action on their crime reports was 95.8% for violent crime and 89.7% for property crime. Regarding satisfaction with police actions, for violent crimes, the satisfaction rate was 72.7%, and for property crimes, it was 42.5%. Additionally, when reporting a violent crime, the satisfaction rate was higher. However, It is noted that satisfaction with police actions has increased compared to previous assessments.


  E. Results of Crime Vulnerability Factor Analysis


• Vulnerability factors include community characteristics (neighborhood relations, neighborhood participation, physical disorder, social disorder, police activity), household characteristics (housing type, residential occupancy type, household crime prevention level, degree of vacancy), demographic characteristics (gender, age, marital status, education level), and personal characteristics of lifestyle (frequency of public transportation, number of late returns, number of drunken returns, wearing fancy clothes when going out), These factors are considered, and their relationship with crime victimization is understood.


• The relationship between community characteristics and crime victimization was found to be related to neighborhood relationships for property crime victimization, neighborhood relationships for violent crime victimization, physical and social disorder, and police activity for intrusion upon habitation-related crime victimization. Specifically, those with weak neighborhood relationships were more likely to experience property crime victimization, and those with weak neighborhood relationships and higher levels of physical and social disorder were more likely to experience violent crime victimization. Neighborhoods with ineffective policing were more likely to experience crime of intrusion upon habitation than those without.


• When looking at the relationship between household characteristics and crime victimization, there were significant differences in crime victimization of intrusion upon habitation by housing type. Those living in non-residential buildings (such as shopping centers) had the highest rate of intrusion upon habitation-related crime victimization, while those living in apartments had the lowest rate of victimization. For crimes of intrusion upon habitation, the lower the average monthly household income and the fewer security measures in general, the higher the rate of victimization.


• In terms of the relationship between personal characteristics and crime victimization, among demographic characteristics, gender was significantly associated with property, violent, and intrusion upon habitation victimization, meaning that women were more likely to experience these types of victimization than men. In terms of age, the younger the age, the higher the rate of violent crime victimization, and the higher the rate of property crime victimization among those aged 40-60 compared to other age groups. By education level, violent crime victimization was more prent among those with higher education, while property crime victimization was most prent among high school graduates.


• When looking at the relationship between lifestyle and crime victimization among personal characteristics, violent crime victims were more likely to experience victimization if they used public transportation more frequently and wore more expensive clothes when going out.


• In terms of yearly trends in vulnerability to crime, only the effectiveness of police activity among community characteristics consistently increased over time. Physical and social disorder generally decreased, with a slight increase in 2023, but at a lower level than before 2019. In terms of household characteristics, the level of home security is generally increasing. Among personal characteristics, the frequency of using public transportation tends to increase, and in the case of drunkenness, it increases and decreases, but in 2023, it is lower than in previous surveys.


  F. Analysis of crime perception, fear of crime, and crime prevention activities


• Regarding the perception of crime occurrence, 60% of respondents believe that the overall crime in Korea will increase compared to last year (2022), and 60% believe that there will be no change in neighborhood (local) crime. Respondents who have experienced direct or indirect crime victimization, high exposure to crime-related media and rumors, weak neighborhood relationships, and high levels of physical and social disorder are more likely to believe that overall and neighborhood crime in Korea will increase.


• Regarding fear of crime, among the two questions on general fear of crime, the fear of walking alone in a neighborhood at night is greater than the fear of being home alone at night. Regarding fear by type of crime victimization, the greatest fear was found to be related to harm to their children, followed by fears related to parents, spouse (partners), and oneself. In this survey, the added fear of crime victimization of parents was second-highest after harm to children. In terms of fear related to different types of crimes, unlike the previous survey, this survey distinguished harassment and stalking and added fear related to digital sex crimes (hidden cameras filming). The highest proportion of respondents expressing fear for each type of crime was for fraud, followed by assault, home intrusion, theft, digital sex crimes, etc.


• Looking at personal characteristics related to fear of crime, it is evident that women experience greater fear for all types of crime than men. Additionally, generally, younger age, higher educational levels, and being unmarried are associated with greater fear of crime. Furthermore, when there is direct or indirect experience of crime victimization and high exposure to crime-related media, the fear is greater compared to situations without these factors. Among the characteristics of the local community, a higher level of physical and social disorder, as well as ineffective police activity, is associated with greater fear.


• Crime prevention activities were categorized into passive and active crime prevention activities, with the former being more common than the latter. Among crime prevention activities, the average for passive crime prevention activities, specifically “patrolling in front of one’s own home,” was the highest, while the average for active crime prevention activities, such as “participating in neighborhood volunteer crime prevention activities,” was the lowest. Passive crime prevention activities were most common among women, those who were widowed or divorced (including separated), high school graduates, and homemakers, while active crime prevention activities were most common among those in their 40s and 60s, those with a spouse (including cohabitation), high school graduates, and those working in service and sales occupations. Additionally, individuals who have directly experienced crime victimization or have high exposure to crime-related media and rumors tend to engage in both passive and active crime prevention activities more than those who do not.


• Looking at the trends of crime prevention awareness, fear of crime, and crime prevention activities by year, in the 2023 survey, awareness that crime would increase nationwide and in local areas compared to previous years has risen. Additionally, the fear of different types of crime and engagement in crime prevention activities are also shown to be at their highest levels in 2023.







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